The E.O.Paton Electric Welding Institute was founded by the initiative of Prof. Evgeny Oscarovich Paton, the outstanding engineer and scientist. It was created on the base of welding laboratory of Electric Welding Committee and Chair of engineering structures of Kiev Polytechnic Institute in accordance with the decree of the Presidium of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Prof. E.O.Paton defined fundamental scientific directions of the Electric Welding Institute in the field of welding, which are actual up to nowadays. Since 1953 and until now Prof. Paton Boris Evgenievich is the director of the Institute.
At the first stage the works of the Institute proved the principal possibility of manufacturing welded structures of strength and reliability, being not worse than those of riveted structures, and greatly exceeding them by the number of technical and economical characteristics, thus promoting the mass implementation of welding technologies in industry. By 1940 the development was completed and implementation of highly-efficient process of automatic submerged arc welding started at the plants of the country. It is the process that was used by the colleagues of the Institute for welding armored steel in the shops of tank plant in the Urals during the times of the Great Patriotic War, which allowed creating mass line production of welded hulls of tanks T-34 and mechanizing welding of other military machines. The pre-war and war stages in the activity of the Institute were the period of establishing the new scientific school, which clearly confirmed its authority by awarding the Electric Welding Institute the name of Paton Evgeny Oscarovich in 1945.
In the years of restoration of national economy destroyed by war the efforts of staff of the Institute were directed to widening the fields of application of highly-efficient submerged automatic and semi-automatic welding instead of manual welding, rationalization of welded structures and industrialization of their production. The colleagues of the Institute were first in the world to perform the automatic welding of sheet structures directly at the site. Works of that period had decisive influence on the rates of post-war reconstruction of industry, development of new modern production of building metal structures, production of highly-reliable products of heavy, transport, chemical, power and other branches of machine building in a welded version.. One of the most significant achievements of the Institute of the early 1950s of the XX century was the development of a new process of fusion welding of metal of large thicknesses, i.e. electroslag welding. This process made radical changes in the production of heavy frames, boilers, hydraulic units and other unique rolled-welded, cast-welded structures. Later in collaboration with TsNIITMASh and other organizations a method of CO2 welding with wire found a wide spreading in industry and provided a considerable growth in level of mechanization of welding works. The further development of consumable electrode arc welding resulted in the development of process and equipment of a pulsed arc welding, flux-cored welding and in mixtures of active and inert gases. Since the beginning of the 1950s of the XX century by the initiative of Prof. B. E. Paton the research works and experimental developments were expanded on application of welding sources of heating to produce metals and alloys of special high quality and reliability. This branch of engineering was named as special electric metallurgy which is currently the main second scientific direction of the Institute activity. The works of colleagues in this branch provided the next stage in the development of modern high-quality metallurgy. At the beginning of the 80s one more scientific direction, the thermal deposition of protective and wear-resistant coatings was formed at the Institute. Over the recent years the Institute has developed unique technologies of welding live tissues and vessels which passed approbation on animals and now applied in surgery operations on humans.
In 1969 V.N.Kubasov, the pilot-cosmonaut, performed for the first time in the world the unique experiment on welding by electron beam, plasma and consumable electrode using the unit “Vulkan” developed at the E. O. Paton Electric Welding Institute. This event gave a start to space technologies which have been of a great importance in exploration of space. In 1984 the cosmonauts S.E.Savitskaya and V.A.Dzhanibekov performed for the first time in the open space the experiments on welding, brazing, cutting and spraying using versatile hand electron beam tool VHT, designed and manufactured at the E. O. Paton Electric Welding Institute. Later the complex experiments in deploying the 12-meter truss structure were carried out accompanied by welding and brazing of its separate units using VHT, and two 15-meter truss structures were deployed being load-bearing base of solar batteries of technological module, docked to the orbital station “Mir”.
System investigations of physical-metallurgical peculiarities of fusion welding of different metals and alloys performed in the Institute have the fundamental significance. The processes of crystallization of weld metal have been studied, the nature of its structural and chemical heterogeneity has been defined, the mechanism of pore and crack formation and methods of its prevention were found. The results of these investigations are the theoretical basis of development and improvement of welding and surfacing consumables. The E.O.Paton Electric Welding Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine is the scientific-technical complex by its structure. It includes experimental design-technological bureau, experimental production, three pilot plants, a number of engineering centers. About 3500 people are working in all departments,, among them 1700 peoples are working at the Institute proper. The scientific potential of the Institute is 300 scientific workers, including 9 academicians and 7 correspondent members, 72 Dr. of Techn. Sci. and over 200 Candidates of Techn. Sci..
Main trends in scientific activity of the Institute :
- integrated studies of nature of welding, soldering, surfacing, spraying and related processes, development of new highly-efficient technologies, equipment and materials on their basis;
- studies of strength and service properties of welded structures, development of principles and bases of their design, improvement of reliability, longevity and service life;
- automation and mechanization of welding and related processes;
- development of new technologies and equipment of electrometallurgical production of especially high-quality alloys and composite materials and products of them.
The results of works are confirmed by sold licenses and received patents. The Institute realized more than 150 licenses in such countries, as USA, Germany, Japan, Russia, Sweden, France, China and other. About 2600 patents of Ukraine, Russia and foreign countries, and also more than 6500 author’s certificates were received.
In the years of the Institute activity more than 60 developments, performed and implemented in the national economy by the colleagues of the Institute in collaboration with production teams, were awarded the Lenin and State Prizes in the area of science and technology, awards after the names of prominent scientists of Ukraine and other prizes.
The Institute has wide international relations with leading welding centers of Europe, USA, Asia and carries out a large work in organizing the joint research and developments, being a member of International Institute of Welding and European Federation of Welding. On the basis of the Institute the International Council on welding and related processes of CIS countries, International Association of Welders and Council of Association of Ukrainian Welders are functioning.